In a typical drinking water treatment plant, the water is distributed after a certain series of stages. First, coagulants (coagulants) are added to the water. These chemicals allow the accumulation of residues that cloud the water and spoil its taste. Later, the water is transferred to large tanks to rest for a while and the sediments go to the bottom. Purified water is passed through membranes that filter smaller contaminants. […]
In a typical drinking water treatment plant, the water is distributed after a series of stages. First, coagulants (coagulants) are added to the water. These chemicals allow the accumulation of residues that cloud the water and spoil its taste. Later, the water is transferred to large tanks to rest for a while and the sediments go to the bottom. Purified water is passed through membranes that filter smaller contaminants. In the disinfection phase, harmful bacteria and viruses are killed by chemicals or ultraviolet light and drinking water becomes ready for distribution.
Technologies Used in Water Treatment Systems
However, infrastructure revisions, qualified repair of distribution lines. or because its renewal cannot be achieved immediately, the water can be contaminated again.
Some researchers are developing new technologies to deal with new pollutants that are seen as potentially harmful, while others are devising new approaches that are not affected by existing infrastructure or remove pollutants at source.
In basic water treatment systems, a variety for both tap water and bottled water innovations are being tested. Some chemicals used can trigger reactions that break down toxic organic molecules into less harmful particles. Ion exchange systems, which remove pollutants with electrical charges, can remove magnesium or calcium ions that increase the “hardness” of the water, and remove nitrates from fertilizers as well as heavy metals such as lead and arsenic. Cities use these technologies together or separately by prioritizing treatment components according to the chemical properties of local waters.
In the treatment process in some water treatment systems,” selective permeability Technologies such as “reverse osmosis” are used, which pass through a membrane with “feature” and clean almost everything in the water.
However, it is expensive to install and operate. The use of private wells and water resources (which are used with all the materials they contain in agriculture, for example) is often out of any purification process and control.
Water flowing from kitchen taps or Bottled water from markets is assumed to be clean and safe drinking water. While this is generally true, water experts continue to seek and develop better cleaning techniques in case of many contaminants listed below:
Poorly treated water can be full of harmful bacteria and viruses. For this reason, since the early 1900s, cities started to disinfect drinking water with chlorine. The result was a rapid decline in waterborne diseases such as cholera and typhoid. Typhoid fever, caused by a type of Salmonella bacterium, was seen in one in every thousand people in 1900, but by 2006, this rate decreased to one in a million.
2) Disinfection By-Products
< Chlorine and bromine can kill most microbes in water.These very common chemicals are very difficult to clean and monitor from drinking water. These pollutants, which have super strong chemical bonds between carbon and fluorine atoms, do not naturally degrade in the environment. Water treatment plants are not designed to clean them either. Studies conducted associate PFCs with a high risk of certain cancers, learning problems, growth deficits and fertility problems. Jamie De Witt, a toxicologist at the University of East Carolina, says that today there are close to 5,000 different PFCs, of which only a few have been studied. Because chemical companies do not need to report these chemicals.
Naturally occurring arsenic is often used for drinking water instead of the city’s water system. It poses a danger to areas from private wells or sources. In addition, arsenic used in agriculture or mining is mixed with groundwater. Exposure to high levels of this element causes skin, bladder and lung cancer. It also affects intelligence and can trigger birth defects.
Nitrates, which are widely used as fertilizers for plants, are mixed into the water with rains.
Although laws have controlled factories for nitrates, pollution from farms continues (not to forget the pesticides used extensively here).
Lead pipes are still in use and provide tap water to millions of people around the world. Lead can get into acidic or corrosive water from these old plumbing pipes.
– Jiri Hrubec, “Water Pollution: Drinking Water and Drinking Water Treatment”, Springer.
– Patrick Sullivan, Franklin Agardy, James Clark, “The Environmental Science of Drinking Water”, Butterworth-Heinemann.
– Geerten JI Schrama, “Drinking Water Supply and Agricultural Pollution”, Springer Science & Business Media .
Author: Oben Güney Saraçoğlu