Molecular Mechanisms Causing Schizophrenia

Molecular Mechanisms Causing Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric illness that is seen equally in men and women and affects 1% of the world population. What is the cause of this disease? Several factors have been found that increase the risk of developing schizophrenia. Thus, in general, schizophrenia is considered to be a complex disease in which many factors are effective. Schizophrenia; birth defects, wrong drug use, time of birth (those born in winter more […]

Molecular Mechanisms That Cause Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric illness that affects 1% of the world population equally in men and women. Several factors have been found to increase the risk of developing schizophrenia, so in general, schizophrenia is considered to be a complex disease in which many factors are involved. they are exposed), but the main risk depends on some genes.

Other risk factors are; low economic status is being married or divorced. However, these conditions may also have occurred as a result of schizophrenia.

Common symptoms in a person with schizophrenia; delusions, hallucinations and speech disorders. Some neurotransmitter systems and functional networks in the brain have been found to be affected in patients with schizophrenia. It is not yet clear whether these changes cause schizophrenia or occur as a result of the disease.
Schizophrenia is a complex disease that cannot be limited to only a few genes, and the mechanisms that cause this disease are not yet fully understood. Therefore, there are some hypotheses put forward regarding the mechanisms underlying schizophrenia.

Molecular Mechanisms Causing Schizophrenia Neural Development Hypothesis

According to this hypothesis, embryo and fetus development Some factors cause disturbances in the connections of neurons.

In samples taken from cadavers, there are changes in the brains affected by schizophrenia, hippocampus shape, prefrontal and temporal part. This suggests that the disease may have occurred during neural development. In addition, these regions were examined by imaging methods. Ventricular enlargement, decrease in brain volume, changes in cortical thickness, hippocampus shape and cerebral asymmetry were observed. Neural connections were disturbed in the hippocampus and neocortex parts of the brain.

The mother’s viral infection during pregnancy is also associated with the development of schizophrenia in the child. In addition, children who are exposed to nervous system infection or oxygen deficiency during birth are 5 times more likely to develop schizophrenia. Interestingly, more than 50% of the genes affecting schizophrenia were also found to be related to the oxygen deficiency condition. These genes are; AKT1, BDNF, CAPON, CCKAR, CHRNA7, CNR1, COMT, DNTBP1, TNF-alpha, GRM3, IL10, MLC1, NOTCH4, NRG1, NR4A2 / NURR1, PRODH, RELN, RGS4, RTN4 / NOGO and GAD1.

Molecular Mechanisms Causing Schizophrenia Dopamine Hypothesis in Schizophrenia

Symptoms of schizophrenia occur with excessive dopamine transfer to mesolimbic and striatal brain parts may have come out.

Increasing the amount of dopamine D2 receptor is also associated with the risk of schizophrenia. It has been observed that cognitive performance disorders occur at high dopamine D2 receptor density. In the imaging results, increased dopamine D2 concentration was observed in schizophrenia patients.

Another factor associated with schizophrenia is BDNF. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); promotes the development, repair, and survival of neurons of nerve cells. Therefore, it is linked to the neuropathological mechanism of schizophrenia. BDNF is critical in the development of the dopamine-related system and regulates the production of the dopamine D3 receptor. Therefore, there may be a link between the properties of BDNF in the nervous system and dopamine production in schizophrenia.

Molecular Mechanisms That Cause Schizophrenia GABAergic Hypothesis

In case of schizophrenia, There is evidence of abnormalities in glutamate and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis.

The synthesis of these enzymes is at different levels in cadaver brain samples diagnosed with schizophrenia compared to normal samples. It was observed that the GAD level decreased in the prefrontal and temporal cortex regions. There is also a link between the abnormal expression of reelin and glycoproteins and GAD.

A factor called DISC1 is also a factor that may be important in understanding the mechanisms of schizophrenia. This factor is associated with neuronal development and migration of neurons in tissue. It is synthesized in the human cerebral cortex and hippocampus, regions that are associated with schizophrenia. A protein called NUDEL is essential for cortical development, migration of nerve cells, and development of axons. Connects to NUDEL DISC1. The amount of NUDEL in the prefronral cortex and hippocampus associated with schizophrenia has decreased. When the connection between NUDEL and DISC1 is disrupted, an abnormal cortical development has been observed in in vivo studies.

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

Microdeletion (loss of part) in the q arm of chromosome 22 increases the risk of schizophrenia in 30% of people affected by this condition.

It has been observed that the genes in PRODH may be associated with schizophrenia.

Immune Hypothesis

Studies have shown that the mother’s infection during pregnancy increases the child’s risk of developing schizophrenia. It has been observed that interleukin and IFNG levels are decreased in patients with schizophrenia. In more detailed studies, it has been seen that polyymophisms (DNA sequence differences) in interleukin 2 and interleukin 4, which are important molecules for the immune system, are also associated with schizophrenia. = “lazy” src = “https://www.bilgiustam.com/resimler/2018/02/sizofren-300×181.jpg” alt = “Molecular Mechanisms That Cause Schizophrenia” width = “308” height = “186” /> Schizophrenia is a complex disease that is not only related to genes. Therefore, being genetically susceptible to this disease does not necessarily indicate that a person will have the disease. Because some triggering factors and environmental influences also play a role in the development of the disease. Also, schizophrenia is associated with multiple mechanisms and dysfunctions.

However, it has been revealed that more than one receptor, gene, protein, and hormone are linked to schizophrenia. Therefore, more studies should be done to understand the interconnection of these systems in the setting of schizophrenia. The main purpose in solving the underlying mechanisms of schizophrenia; to detect the disease at an early stage and to ensure that therapeutic strategies can be used in full recovery of symptoms.

Bibliography:
1) Lang et al. Molecular Mechanisms of Schizophrenia. Cell Physiol Biochem 2007; 20: 687-702.

Author: Ayça Olcay

.

05 comments on “Molecular Mechanisms Causing Schizophrenia

  • munib.org , Direct link to comment

    … [Trackback]

    […] Read More to that Topic: alloverinformation.com/molecular-mechanisms-causing-schizophrenia/ […]

  • elojob , Direct link to comment

    … [Trackback]

    […] Read More to that Topic: alloverinformation.com/molecular-mechanisms-causing-schizophrenia/ […]

  • dark0de market url , Direct link to comment

    … [Trackback]

    […] Here you will find 79722 additional Info to that Topic: alloverinformation.com/molecular-mechanisms-causing-schizophrenia/ […]

Comments are closed.

Gaziantep SEO Gaziantep Yazılım Gaziantep Sosyal Medya Gaziantep Reklam Gaziantep Stüdyo Gaziantep Web Tasarım Gaziantep Medya Ajansı – Sosyal Medya, Reklam, Seo, Yazılım